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This website is not intended to be comprehensive, but to give an outline view of what is possible together with some background information on ocular physiology and optics. It is also important to note that refractive surgery is only contemplated on eyes and in patients where some specifc eye problems have been excluded.

Refractive Errors:

Normal vision (Emmetropia)

For you to see clearly, light rays must be focused by the cornea and the lens to fall precisely on the retina. Your vision is clear if the cornea and lens continue to focus near and far objects precisely on the retina. The lens is located inside the eye behind the iris (the coloured part of the eye). The retina is the inner layer on the back of the eye that senses light. It converts the light rays into impulses that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain, which interprets them as images.

Refractive errors


Refractive errors have in common that there is a mismatch between the focusing ability of the cornea and lens on one hand and the length of the eyeball on the other. Refractive errors are classified as MYOPIA or short-sightedness, HYPEROPIA or long-sightedness and ASTIGMATISM. These disorders may be developmental and is usually so, or it can be acquired as a result of disease or injury. These refractive problems are solved by helping the eye to focus light precisely on the retina, using glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.

Refractive eye surgery


Many people rely on glasses and contact lenses to correct their vision, but some find these methods inconvenient, uncomfortable or unattractive. Spectacles and contact lenses are not always ideal for certain occupations and sporting activities. For those patients who are unhappy with their spectacles or glasses, a permanent alternative may well be economically preferable to the regular optical aid replacement many of these people need. Refractive eye surgery includes several surgical and laser techniques designed to improve problems in focusing the eyes. It has developed rapidly in recent years.